CCTV cameras consist of several components that work together to capture and transmit video footage. The main components of a CCTV camera system are:
- Image Sensor: The image sensor is the heart of the camera and captures the visual information. The most common types of image sensors used in CCTV cameras are CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) and CCD (Charge-Coupled Device).
- Lens: The lens focuses light onto the image sensor, and its quality determines the clarity and field of view of the captured footage. CCTV cameras can have fixed lenses or varifocal lenses that allow manual adjustment of the focal length and angle of view.
- IR Cut Filter: Many modern CCTV cameras have an IR cut filter that automatically blocks infrared light during the daytime for more accurate color reproduction and removes it at night to enhance low-light sensitivity when the camera switches to infrared (IR) mode.
- Infrared LEDs: These LEDs emit infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye but helps the camera capture clear footage in low-light or complete darkness when the camera is in IR mode.
- Camera Housing: The housing protects the internal components of the camera from environmental factors such as weather, dust, and vandalism. Outdoor cameras have weatherproof housings to withstand harsh conditions.
- Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) Motors: Some CCTV cameras, especially PTZ cameras, are equipped with motors that allow remote control to pan (move horizontally), tilt (move vertically), and zoom in or out for flexible coverage.
- Video Processor and Encoder: The video processor and encoder compress and convert the raw video signal from the image sensor into a digital format (e.g., H.264 or H.265) for storage or transmission over networks.
- Power Supply: CCTV cameras require a power source to operate. They are powered either through a direct power connection or through Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology.
- Network Interface: IP cameras have a network interface, such as an Ethernet port, that enables them to connect to local area networks (LANs) or the internet for remote viewing and management.
- DVR (Digital Video Recorder) or NVR (Network Video Recorder): The DVR or NVR is the central device that records, stores, and manages the video footage from the cameras. Analog cameras connect to a DVR, while IP cameras connect to an NVR.
- Monitor or Viewing Device: A monitor or viewing device is used to display the live or recorded video footage from the CCTV cameras. It can be a dedicated monitor or a computer, smartphone, or tablet with suitable viewing software.
- Cabling: The cameras are connected to the DVR/NVR using coaxial cables (for analog cameras) or Ethernet cables (for IP cameras). PoE technology allows power and data transmission over a single Ethernet cable for IP cameras.
These components work together to create a comprehensive CCTV camera system capable of capturing, storing, and monitoring video footage for security and surveillance purposes.
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